Monday, May 25, 2020
In pragmatics, conversational implicature isÃ an indirect or implicit speech act: what is meant by a speakers utterance that is not part of what is explicitly said. The term is also known simply as implicature; it is the antonym (opposite) of explicature, which is an explicitly communicated assumption. What a speaker intends to communicate is characteristically far richer than what she directly expresses; linguistic meaning radically underdetermines the message conveyed and understood, says L.R. Horn in The Handbook for Pragmatics. Example Dr. Gregory House: How many friends do you have?Lucas Douglas: Seventeen.Dr. Gregory House: Seriously? Do you keep a list or something?Lucas Douglas: No, I knew this conversation was really about you, so I gave you an answer so you could get back to your train of thought. Ã¢â¬â Hugh Laurie and Michael Weston, Not Cancer, an episode of the TV show House, M.D. 2008 Inferences The probabilistic character of conversational implicature is easier to demonstrate than define. If a stranger at the other end of a phone line has a high-pitched voice, you may infer that the speaker is a woman. The inference may be incorrect. Conversational implicatures are a similar kind of inference: they are based on stereotyped expectations of what would, more often than not, be the case. Ã¢â¬â Keith Allan, Natural Language Semantics. Wiley-Blackwell, 2001 Origin The term [implicature] is taken from the philosopher H.P. Grice (1913-88), who developed the theory of the cooperative principle. On the basis that a speaker and listener are cooperating, and aiming to be relevant, a speaker can imply a meaning implicitly, confident that the listener will understand. Thus a possible conversational implicature of Are you watching this programme? might well be This programme bores me. Can we turn the television off? Ã¢â¬â Bas Aarts, Sylvia Chalker, and Edmund Weiner, Oxford Dictionary of English Grammar, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2014 Conversational Implicature in Practice Generally speaking, a conversational implicature is an interpretive procedure that operates to figure out what is going on...Assume a husband and wife are getting ready to go out for the evening: 8. Husband: How much longer will you be?9. Wife: Mix yourself a drink. To interpret the utterance in Sentence 9, the husband must go through a series of inferences based on principles that he knows the other speaker is using...The conventional response to the husbands question would be a direct answer where the wife indicated some time frame in which she would be ready. This would be a conventional implicature with a literal answer to a literal question. But the husband assumes that she heard his question, that she believes that he was genuinely asking how long she would be, and that she is capable of indicating when she would be ready. The wife...chooses not to extend the topic by ignoring the relevancy maxim. The husband then searches for a plausible interpretation of her utterance and concludes that what she is doing is telling him that she is not going to offer a particular time, or doesnt know, but she will be long enough yet for him to have a drink. She may also be saying, Relax, Ill be ready in plenty of time. Ã¢â¬â D. G. Ellis, From Language to Communication. Routledge, 1999 The Lighter Side of Conversational Implicature Jim Halpert: I dont think Ill be here in 10 years.Michael Scott: Thats what I said. Thats what she said.Jim Halpert: Thats what who said?Michael Scott: I never know, I just say it. I say stuff like that, you knowÃ¢â¬âto lighten the tension when things sort of get hard.Jim Halpert: Thats what she said. Ã¢â¬â John Krasinski and Steve Carell, Survivor Man, an episode of the TV show, The Office, 2007
Friday, May 15, 2020
La documentaciÃ ³n en espaÃ ±ol para InmigraciÃ ³n debe traducirseÃ al inglÃ ©s. Puede serÃ suficiente la traducciÃ ³n certificadaÃ hecha por una persona bilingÃ ¼e.Ã Hay que tener en cuenta que en ocasiones cierto tipo de documentos, como calificaciones acadÃ ©micas o laborales para su convalidaciÃ ³n, puede que tengan que ser traducidos por un intÃ ©rprete jurado. Incluso puede ser necesario obtener la Apostilla de la Haya. Pero para la mayorÃ a de los documentos, principalmente en asuntos migratoriosÃ no serÃ ¡ necesario. Y es suficiente con una traducciÃ ³n certificada hecha por cualquier persona bilingÃ ¼e por lo que se puede ahorrar dinero en este trÃ ¡mite. AdemÃ ¡s, NO es necesaria la firma de un notario. QuiÃ ©n puede hacer una traducciÃ ³n certificada y cÃ ³mo se debe realizar Cualquier persona que es amiga del solicitante de un beneficio migratorio (no un familiar) con conocimientos fluidos de los idiomas espaÃ ±ol e inglÃ ©s.Debe traducir palabra por palabra. Es decir, no basta un resumen del texto que traduce sino que ha de ser una traducciÃ ³n fiel y completa.La traducciÃ ³n debe hacerse en una hoja en blanco, escribiendo con letra legible y tinta negra o -preferible- en computadora. Al finalizar la traducciÃ ³n es cuando se inserta, en la misma hoja, el siguiente modelo de carta que se seÃ ±ala a continuaciÃ ³n y en el que se certifica que la persona que la ha traducido tiene conocimientos fluidos de inglÃ ©s y espaÃ ±ol y que ha realizado con competencia la traducciÃ ³n. Ejemplo de modelo de carta que se coloca al final de la traducciÃ ³n para certificarla I certify that I am competent to translate from Spanish to English and that the above Marriage Certificate of Pedro Sanchez and MarÃ a GarcÃ a is a correct and true translation to the best of my knowledge and belief. Signed: Tito JandroÃ CaramÃ ©sAddress: 163 W. 36th Street, NY NY 10017Phone number: 917Ã 21Ã 63Ã 68Date: February 7th, 2017 Notas sobre esta certificaciÃ ³n de la traducciÃ ³n Obviamente el nombre o nombres de las personas sobre las que trata el documento y el tipo de documento. En el ejemplo se utiliza un certificado de matrimonio.En Signed, ademÃ ¡s de poner el nombre completo de la persona que hizo la traducciÃ ³n, hay que acordarse siempre de firmar.La direcciÃ ³n y el nÃ ºmero de telÃ ©fono han de corresponder a la persona que ha hecho la traducciÃ ³n. Segundo ejemplo de modelo para certificar una traducciÃ ³n I, Carmen PÃ ©rez, certify that I am fluent in the English and Spanish language and that the above document is an accurate translation of the document entitle Birth Certificate. SignatureName: Carmen PÃ ©rezAddress: 163 W. 64th Street NY NY 10017Date: February 7th, 2017 Que junto con la traducciÃ ³n certificada de esta manera hay que enviar una fotocopia legible del documento original que se ha traducido. Incluir el derecho y el revÃ ©s. Ejemplos de documentos para los que es suficiente este tipo de traducciÃ ³n Actas de nacimiento (conocidas en algunos paÃ ses como certificados) que se incluyen en peticiones de familia.Actas de viudedad, divorcio o anulaciÃ ³n de matrimonioCertificado de matrimonioDeclaraciones juradas sobre el buen carÃ ¡cter moral de un migrante, que se recomienda incluir en peticiones como por ejemplo de perdones. Consejos sobre traducciones para InmigraciÃ ³n Todos los documentos en espaÃ ±ol que se envÃ an al Servicio de CiudadanÃ a e InmigraciÃ ³n (USCIS, por sus siglas en inglÃ ©s) deben de ser traducidos. Sin embargo, en ocasiones los que se envÃ an a los consulados no siempre es necesario. Va a depender de la polÃ tica de cada consulado, con lo que es conveniente consultar en la pÃ ¡gina web cuÃ ¡les son los requisitos. Si se eligeÃ un traductor profesional, deberÃ ¡ tambiÃ ©n incluir algÃ ºn tipo de certificaciÃ ³n sobre la traducciÃ ³n que realice, por ejemplo siguiendo los ejemplos anteriores seÃ ±alados en este artÃ culo. Finalmente recordar que no es necesario que estas traducciones estÃ ©nÃ firmadas por un notario Este es un artÃ culo informativo. No es asesorÃ a legal.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Danielle Davidson English 150 Fall 2014 Ho Lot Of Stigma: The Sexual Double Standard Gender roles are social constructs that defines what sort of behaviors are acceptable for men or women. These rigid expectations teach people through socialization that we should think, speak, dress, and be a certain way depending on which gender we are. When we are young we learn the behaviors that are socially appropriate for males and females; these behaviors are often based on gender stereotypes. For example, women are expected to love shopping and take care of domestic duties like cleaning the house, while men are expected to love sports and to work outside the home in an industry like construction or engineering. While men and women do have distinct differences that can t always be chalked up to social imposition, these ideas of what it means to be male or female can be very harmful to people s identity. People are often judged and scrutinized for failing to fit into the box society creates for them based on their gender. There are quite a few double standards that exist regarding gender. It is unfair to judge people more harshly for something based solely on their gender, and one common example of this is sexual behavior. Women are judged harshly for the same sexual behavior that men are praised for. This sexual double standard can have devastating effects on women who get labeled as Ã¢â¬Å"sluts.Ã¢â¬ Men who are thought to have a higher number of sexual partners or be more sexuallyShow MoreRelatedHow Men and Women Are Perceived According to Their Gender844 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesoccur based on ones gender and have been shaped over hundreds of years and have shown what is deemed acceptable for one gender is not always acceptable for the other. Our society is based on a gender social structure and what is appropriate for an individual. Promiscuous behavior and active sexual expression ranges from whats expected of an individual and can change based on their gender, age and socio-economic status. The evolutionary theories expla in biological differences in sexual behavior betweenRead MoreA Fallen Woman and an Upright Man: The Sexual Double Standard1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswho grew up in poverty and whose fate was shaped by the sexual double standard. The sexual double standard is when men and women are evaluated differently for engaging in sexual activity (Marks 84). In Stephen CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s novella, Ã¢â¬Å"Maggie: A Girl of the Streets,Ã¢â¬ the sexual double standard is evident through social norms and expectations, the emergence of the sexual revolution, and the permissiveness of sexually active men. Society plays a large role in determining perspectives towards sexually active individualsRead MoreA Double Standard1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSEXUAL DOUBLE STANDARD . Society is known to treat men and women differently despite the equality that is supposed to exist between the sexes. While sexism and gender sensitivity was at its worst during the early eras, it still exists nowadays because of what is known as the double standard mentality. In the poem Ã¢â¬ËDouble StandardÃ¢â¬â¢ Harper presents various examples of this double standard mentality that exists in the late 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s. The poem focuses on sexual double standard which is more appropriatelyRead MoreRock Music and Confined Sexual Repression in the 1960s Essay1119 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesgirl response to the confined sexual repression, rock music created many controversial consequences. Music became a commodity that served escapism from reality instead of creating options and choices and brought the teen cultures to go against the mainstream culture to bring forth identities that are more coherent and ideal. Rock and roll was the most compelling commodity to enter the teen consumer culture. Gender roles being unequal created a sexist double standard and women were the object of needsRead MoreEssay about Gender Inequality1428 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesovercome the obstacle of gender inequality and evolved into a society of fairness and righteousness. As many know, females can be just as proficient and qualified as males at any task. Though some efforts to off-set this gender imbalance is in place, it is still commonly acknowledged that many careers are stated to be a male job such as lawyers, and female jobs such as secretaries. Gender inequality is a visible fact in our society and in this essay, I hypothesize that gender inequality still existsRead MoreThe Feminization Of Love, By Francesca M. Cancian Essay1691 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbegan to be defined by their sexual behaviors. With this, the idea of love and romance was feminized; and women were considered the ones who expressed their emotions, accepted strong feelings, and remained pure. In contrast, men start ed to be considered sexualized creatures that were expected to be emotionally reserved. Today there is a sexual double standard that puts pressure on women to engage in less sexual activity than men and puts pressure on men to maintain a standard of masculinity, just likeRead MoreA Double Standard By Frances Ellen Watkins Harper909 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescivil rights and gender equality throughout her lifetime (Strong Female Friday). Her desire and willingness to fight for social reform was fueled by the inconsistencies and double standards that she viewed within the society in which she lived, both based on race and gender. In the poem Ã¢â¬Å"A Double StandardÃ¢â¬ by Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, the issue of gender discrimination is discussed through the portrayal of the contrasting principles in society regarding societyÃ¢â¬â¢s response to a sexual encounter betweenRead MoreThe Effects Of Parental Supervision On Adolescents And Young Adults942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In genera l females are held to different sexual standards than men. When females hook up or have one-night stands, such conduct is frowned upon. Females who hook up or participate in the booty calls generally have lower self-esteem. Where did males prefer hook ups as an oppose to traditional dating. Interpersonal dating relationships start with adolescents and young adults. This age range is where trial and error relationship lessons are learned. I chose the topic of perceptions of traditional datingRead MoreSociety s Norms Of Sexual Activity1587 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdegraded of certain sexual behaviors that deviate from social norms. Feminist believe that women deserve equality, and therefore stand up for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. SocietyÃ¢â¬â¢s norms of sexual activity is different from men and women, when men seem sexually active they are praised, but when women seem sexually active they are judged and called Ã¢â¬Å"sluts.Ã¢â¬ In society, from a very young age people, including women, have been unintentionally teaching their children about double standards in gender, being unintentionallyRead MoreGender Double Standards Essay1705 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessociety, one starts to see many cracks and loopholes where one set of standards does not apply the same way for men as it does to women, and vice versa. One of the main and most discussed double standards when it comes to gender is the fact that men are praised for being promiscuous, while women are put down and called names. This double standard goes way back in the societal memory. Evolutionary psychologists suggest that these gender differences have resulted from malesÃ¢â¬â¢ and femalesÃ¢â¬â¢ different reproductive
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Demonstrate the skills and knowledge needed to promote the development of Emotional Intelligence in others and use others Emotional Strengths and Weaknesses to maximise workplace outcomes. Answer: I was being appointed as a training coach and for the emotional guide for the employers for their training, quality and the development performances and to groom them when and wherever required. Coaching to the employers for their performance is one of the important part for the management of the company. The employees while performing towards their job who faces some traumatic situations, financial issues or any family disruption due to any or the other issues. I was being allowed to interrogate Pat, a super performer of the company for its deterioration from the performances. Pat describes his performance in terms of high quality. He said he was very happy in his job. He was very much involved in his job. He maintained regularity, punctuatility and full attendance of the month without any delay or late comings. He was rater too punctual that he used to attend the office prior to the time than being late. Pat explained his personal situation to be the disastrous ones, as he faced a huge loss in his family. He lost his wife and his child recently due to a car accident. He was very much dedicated towards his family as well. After the shift end, he nerve used to stay back at the office for any work, he was very scheduled in his daily work in his office as well as in his home. He loved his wife very much. The loss of a very special and close person was very much painful for him and considered as an intolerable pain for him that is dragging him from the concentration in his job, which is creating a negative impulse towards the company, the managers, the sales team even the customers who were dependent on him. The entire system of the circle was getting affected due to the psychological issue that is being faced by Pat. While asking him about the job satisfaction, he was overwhelmed towards the company as they were proving him with the ample of support, salary and the satisfaction towards his job. He was absolutely satisfied with the job that is allotted to him, in the field of sasles and marketing that he always had to deal the customers with the proper affection, friendliness and respect. Emotional Intelligence can be explained with the help of few models out of which, the ability model is considered to the one of the important and famous one. Pats emotional intelligence was being described by the help of the ability model. Listening skills and the empathy are considered to be the most important part in the EI. Empathy is considered to the one in which the emotions of the other people. Being a coach to the company and psychologist, listening to Pats issues and solving it, based on listening and showing empathy towards the issues faced by him. Pats strength consists of his excessive polite and friendly behavior to the customers during the service of the sale and the after sales as well. He was considered to the dedicated performer with the selling skills. He was the dedicated sales man with all the certain qualities that is required for maintain a proper image for his performance. His present weakness lies in the emotional phase that he is facing due to the loss in his family. While proving the empathy to Pat, it was clear that he was broken down emotionally and psychologically that he need to overcome the trauma and to join the work with his stable performance. I, being the coach explained him the necessity of the performance in the job and the performance of Pat is also vital for the overall performance of the company. The personal, professional and team goals are- Focus on the dedication of the work Concentrate on the process of selling Maintaining the politeness with the customer Keeping the entire worries and the feeling for the loss of the family and to concentrate on the performance towards the work can help in the diversion of the concentration Pat have committed that he will be focusing on his entire work by setting up his worries and to dedicate and concentrate on his job. He have committed that he will be maintaining his performance like before and will add more feather on the performance. He also committed that he will be performing hard in spite of the traumatic behavior. Bibliography: Berg, M. E., Berg, M. E., Karlsen, J. T., Karlsen, J. T. (2016). A study of coaching leadership style practice in projects.Management Research Review,39(9), 1122-1142. Ciarrochi, J., Mayer, J. D. (2013).Applying emotional intelligence: A practitioner's guide. Psychology Press. Dong, Y., Seo, M. G., Bartol, K. M. (2014). No pain, no gain: An affect-based model of developmental job experience and the buffering effects of emotional intelligence.Academy of Management Journal,57(4), 1056-1077. Druskat, V. U., Mount, G., Sala, F. (2013).Linking emotional intelligence and performance at work: Current research evidence with individuals and groups. Psychology Press. Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R., McKee, A. (2013).Primal leadership: Unleashing the power of emotional intelligence. Harvard Business Press.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Cetacea Order Whales, dolphins and porpoises make up the classification order Cetacea, which contains two suborders, Mysticeti and Odontoceti. The baleen whales are members of the Mysticeti suborder, while the toothed whales, dolphins and porpoises make up the suborder Odontoceti. Altogether, the two suborders contain eighty-one known species, separated into thirteen different families. In each family are a number of species, each classified further into 'sub-families', or genera, of which there are 40. What Are Cetaceans? There are many misconceptions about cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises), the most common of which is the idea that cetaceans are fish. They're not - they are mammals, like you and me. Millions of years ago, they lived on land; their bodies were covered in hair, they had external ears, they walked on four legs, they beared live young. As mammals, cetaceans have these characteristics that are common to all mammals: * They are warm-blooded animals. * They breathe in air through their lungs. * They bear their young alive and suckle them on their own milk. * They have hair - though generally only a few 'whiskers'. Another way of discerning a cetacean from a fish is by the shape of the tail. The tail of a fish is vertical and moves from side to side when the fish swims. The tail of a cetacean is horizontal and moves up and down instead. The Cetacean's Adaptations for Sea Life Over a period of millions of years, the cetacean returned to the sea - there was more food there, and more space than on land. Because of this increase in space, there was no natural limit to the cetacean's size (i.e. the amount of weight its legs could hold) since the water provided buoyancy. It had no longer any need for legs. During this time, the cetacean lost the qualities that fitted it for land existence and gained new qualities for life at sea. Its hind limbs disappeared, its body became more tapered and streamlined - a form that enabled it to move swiftly through the water. For the same reason, most of its fur disappeared, reducing the resistance of the giant body to the water. The cetacean's original tail was replaced by a pair of flukes that acted like a propeller. As part of this streamlining process, the bones in the cetacean's front limbs fused together. In time, what had been the forelegs became a solid mass of bone, blubber and tissue, making very effective flippers that balance the cetacean's tremendous bulk. After the cetacean's hair disappeared, it needed some way of preserving their body heat. This came in the form of blubber, a thick layer of fat between the skin and the flesh that also acts as an emergency source of energy. In some cetaceans the layer of blubber can be more than a foot thick. Breathing, Seeing, Hearing and Echolocation Since the cetacean is a mammal, it needs air to breathe. Because of this, it needs to come to the water's surface to exhale its carbon dioxide and inhale a fresh supply of air. Naturally it cannot breathe under water, so as it dives a muscular action closes the blowholes (nostrils), which remain closed until the cetacean next breaks the surface. When it does, the muscles open the blowholes and warm air is exhaled. To make this easier, the cetacean's blowholes have moved to the top of its head, giving it a quicker chance to expel the stale air and inhale fresh air. When the stale air, warmed from the lungs, is exhaled it condenses and vapourises as it meets the cold air outside. This is rather like when you breathe out on a cold day and a small cloud of warm air appears. This is called the 'blow', or'spout', and each cetacean's blow is different in terms of shape, angle and height. This is how cetaceans can be identified at a distance by experienced whalers or whale-watchers. The cetacean's eyes are set well back and to either side of its huge head. This means that cetaceans with pointed 'beaks' (such as dolphins) have good binocular vision forward and downward, but others with blunt heads (such as the Sperm Whale) can see either side but not directly ahead or directly behind. The eyes shed greasy tears which protect them from the salt in the water, and cetaceans have been found to have good vision both in the water and out. Akin to the eyes, the cetacean's ears are also small. Life in the sea accounts for the
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
How to Use the 5 Relative Pronouns in Adjective Clauses An adjective clauseÃ (also called a relative clause) is a group of words that works like an adjective to modify a nounÃ or noun phrase.Ã Here well focus on the five relative pronouns that are used in adjective clauses. An adjective clause usually begins with a relative pronoun: a word that relates the information in the adjective clause to a word or a phrase in the main clause. Who, Which, and That Adjective clauses most often begin with one of these three relative pronouns: whowhichthat All three pronouns refer to a noun, but who refers only to people and which refers only to things. That may refer to either people or things. Here are a few examples, with the adjective clauses in italics and the relative pronouns in bold. Everyone turned and looked at Toya, who was still standingÃ behind the counter.Charlies old coffee machine, which hadnt worked in years, suddenly started to gurgle and splutter.The ticking sound was coming from the little box that was sitting on the windowsill. In the first example, the relative pronoun who refers to the proper noun Toya. In sentence two, which refers to the noun phrase Charlies old coffee machine. And in the third sentence, that refers to the little box. In each of the examples, the relative pronoun functions as the subject of the adjective clause. Sometimes we can omit the relative pronoun from an adjective clauseas long as the sentence still makes sense without it. Compare these two sentences: The poem thatÃ Nina chose was We Real Cool by Gwendolyn Brooks.The poem ÃË Nina chose was We Real Cool by Gwendolyn Brooks. Both sentences are correct, though the second version may be considered just a little less formal than the first one. In the second sentence, the gap left by the omitted pronoun (identified by the symbol ÃË)Ã is called aÃ zero relative pronoun. Whose and Whom Two other relative pronouns used to introduce adjective clauses are whose (the possessive form of who) and whom (the object form of who). Whose begins an adjective clause that describes something that belongs to or is a part of someone or something mentioned in the main clause: The ostrich, whose wings are useless for flight, can run faster than the swiftest horse. Whom stands for the noun that receives the action of the verb in the adjective clause: Anne Sullivan was the teacher whom Helen Keller met in 1887. Notice that in this sentence Helen Keller is the subject of the adjective clause, and whom is the direct object. Put another way, who is equivalent to the subject pronouns he, she, or they in a main clause; whom is equivalent to the object pronouns him, her, or them in a main clause.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Nursing Leadership - Essay Example To practically calculate the cost of nursing care, I referred to an orthopedic unit, which had 12 patients who were at different situations and had different acuity levels. PCS would be calculated on the following:Ã To practically calculate the cost of nursing care, I referred to an orthopedic unit, which had 12 patients who were at different situations and had different acuity levels. PCS would be calculated on the following:Ã Ã¢â¬ ¢ 4 patients were in a condition to be discharged and had acuity level 1: 4 X 1= 4.Ã¢â¬ ¢ 4 patients were under therapy and had acuity level 4: 4 X 4= 16.Ã¢â¬ ¢ 4 patients were under regular had acuity level 2: 4 X 2= 8.This total of 28 hours would be expanded by adding further 48 hours of an 8-hour shift for 8 patients who did not discharge in 8 hours which makes a total of 76 hours. This grand total of 76 hours can be used to determine Full-Time Equivalent (FTE) for a unit.However, this formula does not give an accurate value because it does not have space for variances made according to situations. For instance, if a patient was acquiring 2 hours and later demands 3 hours due to some uncertainty in patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. The cost is still being evaluated for 2 hours and thus giving 3 hours till the patient get stable. To neutralize these differences, Relative Value Unit as an index number is given to each unit based on the amount of resources which can be managed to produce nursing care.Ã For instance, $1,250,000 is given to a unit which has total RVUs of 5,196.50.... 4 patients were under therapy and had acuity level 4: 4 X 4= 16. 4 patients were under regular had acuity level 2: 4 X 2= 8. This total of 28 hours would be expanded by adding further 48 hours of an 8 hour shift for 8 patients who did not discharge in 8 hours which makes a total of 76 hours. This grand total of 76 hours can be used to determine Full Time Equivalent (FTE) for a unit. However, this formula does not give an accurate value because it does not have space for variances made according to situations. For instance if a patient was acquiring 2 hours and later demands 3 hours due to some uncertainty in patientÃ¢â¬â¢s condition. The cost is still being evaluated for 2 hours and thus giving 3 hours till the patient get stable. To neutralize these differences, Relative Value Unit as an index number is given to each unit based on amount of resources (labor and capital) which can be managed to produce nursing care (Kelly, 2008). For instance $1,250,000 is given to a unit which has total RVUs of 5,196.50. The amount will be divided by RVUÃ¢â¬â¢s to bring out the cost per RVU. For instance $1,250,000/ 5,196.50 = $ 240.55 per RVU. Thus the cost of one patient of level 4 acuity will be $ 240.55 X 4= $962.2 for one day. This formula of calculating the nursing cost does not either gives an exact cost because situations can vary and can demand excess resources. Thus there is no accurate calculation system to recognize exact nursing cost. It all depends on the acuity level which itself is not certain but varies according to patients conditions. These results can help outline the nursing care budget which is helpful to envision all proÃ¢â¬â¢s and conÃ¢â¬â¢s to later deal with the finances affectively (Kelly, 2008). Dq2#2)